Built in neo-gothic style, the Cathedral is the seat of the Parish of Nossa Senhora do Rosário. In 1907, the Mother Church, a ruin at the time, was demolished and a square, Praça da República, was built in its place. The new Cathedral was begun in 1909, inaugurated in 1924 but only completed in 1951.

It has three naves, two marble side altars and two chapels, one each side of the main altar: one dedicated to the Blessed Sacrament, with frescos by Benedito Calixto, and one dedicated to Our Lady of Fatima. An altar in honor of Saint Josefina Bakhita was added in 2001. She was canonized by virtue of a favor granted to a citizen of Santos. There is also a crypt with ossuary, and a chapel. The church received the title of cathedral because it houses the bishop’s seat, known as ‘cathedra’.